The chemical composition of goji berry

The chemical composition of goji berry




The chemical composition of goji is more complex, and the major contain: Protein, amino acids, trace
elements, carbohydrates, fat, fatty acids, terpenoid, steroid, vitamins, pigments category alkaloids.
 
1. Protein and amino acid
The protein and amino acid are important nitrogen-containing substances in goji, and each 100grams
goji contains 12 grams crude protein. Goji contains a variety of amino acid, and the sort and content are
different with the changes of sort, the source of origin and growth Environment. Xishanlongzao, a famous
Japanese scholar, found that there are 12 kinds of amino acids in goji produced from Tokyo. After
inspecting, the Chinese Statutory Inspection Bodies found that there are 18 kinds of amino acids in Ningxia
goji, and the content as high as 14.5 percent, in which, Free amino acids accounted for more than half of
total and soluble protein is more than 1.5 percent, and 8 kinds of human body can not synthetic but necessary.
 
2. Trace elements
There are 32 kinds of trace and major elements in Ningxia goji, and in which, the content of 12 kinds of trace
elements are higher than that in goji produced from Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Hebei, Hubei and so
on. According to Ningxia Goji Research, research from Yuan Qinghua show that, Ningxia goji different growing
condition of trace elements contained in different, the content of iron is more than 10mg/100g in coloration fruit
and full-brown fruit, the content of Copper, zinc, manganese is very high in young fruit. Ma Ling and other
researchers determined black goji in the 13 kinds of trace elements, they found that the contents of potassium,
sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc in black goji are higher than that in red goji.
 
3. Carbohydrates
The scientific and technological workers show that the dried goji berry is in the non-starch but rich in carbohydrates.
The content of sugar are generally 40%, while the sugar content of Ningxia goji are more than 45%, especially the
content of Polysaccharides, the major Bio-active Ingredient in goji, is more than 7 percent, Than other goji, growing
in other place, of the high 5-10%.
 
4. Fat and fatty acids
The content of crude fat fruit is generally 1-2 percent in goji fresh, and 8-12 percent in dried goji berrys. The major fatty
acids contained in goji fruit are linoleic acid, linolenic acid, melissic acid and so on.
 
The content of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid are accounting for 38.2 percent and 61.8 percent in
pericarp and pulp, and  13.7 percent and 86.3 percent in seed oil.
 
5. Terpenoid
Scientists have also gained three terpenoids, Cyperaceae ketone, Dimethylformamide Lo Kwai vinyl ketene, and Ionone
by isolating goji.
 
6. Steroid
Goji also contains Lanosterol, β-sitosterol, sigmasterol, cycloasterol, cholesterol, campesterol and so on.
 
7. Vitamins
Goji contains 7 kinds of vitamins needed by human body: vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C
and nicotinic acid. The content of Carotene in goji is 19.61mg/ 100g and almost the highest all over foods. Carotene can be
transformed into vitamin A in the human liver enzyme function, goji has the functiong of brighting eyes because of its high
vitamin activity.
 
8. Pigments
Goji pigment, Composed Mainly by the carotenoids and other non-ferrous material, is the unified name of all kinds of color
substances found in wolfberries. Early research shows that goji pigment material contains zeaxanthin physalien, its soft resin
esters, and Su-cryptoxanthin. in 1995, Hejin and Zhang Shenhua, scientific researcher, had a systematic study in classification
and structure of goji carotenoids, results show that the carotenoids can be divided into free type of carotenoids and Carotenoid
fatty acid vinegar, and free type of carotenoids including β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin.
 
9. Category alkaloids
Betaine is a kind of quaternary ammonium compounds, whose chemicals known as N-methyl-generation amino acids. There
are 12 kinds of Betaine contained in plants, and the simplest, the first discovered and most studied is the glycine betaine, which
is Referred to as betaine. In 1985, South Korean scientists have isolated four alkaloids from the goji fruit, and in which, three
kinds of alkaloids, perloline, NP一formylharmaline and 1-carbomethoxy-β-carboline were appraised out.

------Excerpt from The Magic Ningxia Goji(edited by Ningxia Qixiang chairman, Wang Zi Gui and CEO Wang Xin).
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